Trusts are frequently included in a comprehensive estate plan for a wide variety of reasons, including the fact that a trust can help an estate avoid probate. If you are the beneficiary of a trust, however, you may wonder if you can contest a trust. The Indianapolis trust attorneys at Frank & Kraft discuss when and how a trust can be contested.
A trust is a separate legal entity that owns and holds property for the benefit of one or more beneficiaries. A trust is created by a Settlor, also referred to as a Grantor, Trustor, or Maker, who transfers property to a Trustee appointed by the Settlor. The Trustee holds that property for the trust’s beneficiaries. All trusts fit into one of two categories – testamentary or living (inter vivos) trusts. Testamentary trusts are typically activated by a provision in the Settlor’s Last Will and Testament and, therefore, do not become active during the lifetime of the Settlor. Conversely, a living trust, as the name implies, does activate during the Settlor’s lifetime. Living trusts can be further sub-divided into revocable and irrevocable living trusts. The type of trust you create will depend on the purpose of the trust among other factors.
Can a Trust Be Contested?
You are likely familiar with the concept of a Will contest wherein someone (usually a beneficiary or heir) challenges the validity of a decedent’s Will that has been submitted for probate. A Will contest can be costly – both in terms of time and money. The desire to avoid both probate and litigation is one of many reasons people often choose to rely predominantly on a trust to distribute their estate. Can that trust be contested though? The answer is “yes,” a trust can be contested; however, it is typically a more complicated process than contesting a Will.
Contesting a trust works essentially the same as contesting a Will. As with a Will contest, you cannot challenge a trust simply because you are not happy with the terms of the trust agreement. In other words, being left out of a trust is not a valid legal reason to challenge the trust. Instead, you must use one of the legal reasons allowable under state law which governs most issues related to wills, trusts, and estates. For example, you could challenge the Settlors capacity to create the trust. In this setting, capacity refers to the mental state necessary to establish the trust. You might also contest a trust by claiming that the Settlor was subject to “undue influence” at the time the trust agreement was executed. Improper execution and/or technical flaws with the trust agreement itself can also serve as the basis for a challenge to a trust.
To contest a trust, you will also have to have “standing.” Standing is the legal term used to refer to someone who has the legal right to initiate a legal proceeding. In the case of a Will or trust contest, a person must usually be a beneficiary, heir, previous beneficiary, or sometimes a creditor in order to have the standing required to proceed.
If you have standing and you believe you have a valid legal reason to contest a trust, a trust contest can be initiated by filing the necessary legal documents with the appropriate court.
Contact an Indianapolis Trust Attorneys
For more information, please download our FREE estate planning worksheet. If you have additional questions or concerns about contesting a trust, contact an experienced Indianapolis trust attorney at Frank & Kraft by calling (317) 684-1100 to schedule an appointment.